Ethical Theories That Are Important for Others

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Ethics and philosophy are basically two things related to each other. Therefore it is important to review what are the ethical theories that exist in general, described as follows:


Selfishness is an inescious trait of man, and selfishness is usually motivated to maintain and enhance views that are only self-beneficial. Egoism also usually does not care about the surrounding environment, he just wants himself to be happy himself. For example: A person who wants to get a higher position, he does everything in his power to get the position, regardless of others.


Hedonism has actually existed since time immemorial, hedonism is a view of life that considers that pleasure and material pleasure are the main purpose of life. For adherents of this understanding, having fun, revelry, and relaxation is the main purpose of life, whether it is fun for others or not. Because they think of life only once, so they feel like enjoying life artkmat-nikmatnya. For example: People who always party every night, then always buy branded goods, eat always in an expensive place and then publish it to the public, and much more.


Naturalism suggests that something in this world leads to a goal by fulfilling the calling of nature, and that every thing will be able to achieve perfection. So the measure of good and bad deeds of man is an act that suits the instincts of man himself. The measure of good or bad is :”is it in accordance with the state of nature”, if natural then it is said to be good, whereas if not natural is seen as bad. For example: People who love nature more than their social environment, this person abandons civilization and decides to live in the wild.


Existentialism is a tradition whose understanding centers on the individual human being who is responsible for his free will without thinking deeply about which is right and which is not true. It is not that one does not know what is true and which is not true, but an existentialist realizes that truth is relative, and therefore each individual is free to determine something that he thinks is true. For example: In today’s digital age, people like to exist on their own social media. They put their thoughts forward, and the truth. Many people like to spread the word widely without finding out the truth first, and the person exposes it to be known and wants to exist on social media.


Cantianism is the understanding in which each of us makes a decision, we must imagine how we are the harmed party. This understanding explains that if we do something, then it is done regardless of the interests of others. In fact this is almost similar to previous understandings of selfishness, only this cantianism further shows that there are an awful lot of views about good and bad. For example: So for example if we want to disconnect from someone, then we have to position ourselves as the person we are going to disconnect from.


Utilitarianism is a theory that a proper action is one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering. Utilitarianism is an ethical understanding that argues that good is useful, beneficial, and profitable. On the contrary, evil or bad is unhelpful, useless, and detrimental. For example: Actions of PT. PLN if reviewed from the theory of ethics utilitarianism is considered unethical, because they do monopoly. So the community’s need for electricity depends heavily on PT. PLN.


Contractualism, or “social contract theory”, is a theoretical concept in the field of political philosophy that underlies the origin of society, the legitimacy of the modern State and the political legitimacy of the rulers in its structure. It is a stream of thought that studies the nature of the exercise of political power, initiated in seventeenth-century Europe with the hands of its classical thinkers, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau of France. For example: The government sets all the rules that will govern people’s lives and which will shape their structure. In this structure, political power is the main axis of social relations between communities itself.


Graham, Gordon. 2015. Teori-Teori Etika. alih bahasa Irfan M. Zakkie. Bandung: Nusa Media.

Maksum, Ali. 2016. Pengantar Filsafat.Cet-1. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media.

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